Prefect introduces a flexible map/reduce model for dynamically executing parallel tasks.
Classic "map/reduce" is a powerful two-stage programming model that can be used to distribute and parallelize work (the "map" phase) before collecting and processing all the results (the "reduce" phase).
A typical map/reduce setup requires three things:
- An iterable input
- A "map" function that operates on a single item at a time
- A "reduce" function that operates on a group of items at once
For example, we could use map/reduce to take a list of numbers, increment them all by one, and sum the result:
numbers = [1, 2, 3] map_fn = lambda x: x + 1 reduce_fn = lambda x: sum(x) mapped_result = [map_fn(n) for n in numbers] reduced_result = reduce_fn(mapped_result) assert reduced_result == 9
# Prefect approach
Prefect's version of map/reduce is far more flexible than the classic implementation.
When a task is mapped, Prefect automatically creates a copy of the task for each element of its input data. The copy -- referred to as a "child" task -- is applied only to that element. This means that mapped tasks actually represent the computations of many individual children tasks.
If a "normal" (non-mapped) task depends on a mapped task, Prefect automatically applies a reduce operation to gather the mapped results and pass them to the downstream task.
However, if a mapped task relies on another mapped task, Prefect does not reduce the upstream result. Instead, it connects the nth upstream child to the nth downstream child, creating independent parallel pipelines.
Here's how the previous example would look as a Prefect flow:
from prefect import Flow, task numbers = [1, 2, 3] map_fn = task(lambda x: x + 1) reduce_fn = task(lambda x: sum(x)) with Flow('Map Reduce') as flow: mapped_result = map_fn.map(numbers) reduced_result = reduce_fn(mapped_result) state = flow.run() assert state.result[reduced_result].result == 9
Dynamically-generated children tasks are first-class tasks
Even though the user didn't create them explicitly, the children tasks of a mapped task are first-class Prefect tasks. They can do anything a "normal" task can do, including succeed, fail, retry, pause, or skip.
# Simple mapping
The simplest Prefect map takes a tasks and applies it to each element of its inputs.
For example, if we define a task for adding 10 to a number, we can trivially apply that task to each element of a list:
from prefect import Flow, task @task def add_ten(x): return x + 10 with Flow('simple map') as flow: mapped_result = add_ten.map([1, 2, 3])
The result of the
mapped_result task will be
[11, 12, 13] when the flow is run.
# Iterated mapping
mapped_result is nothing more than a task with an iterable result, we can immediately use it as the input for another round of mapping:
from prefect import Flow, task @task def add_ten(x): return x + 10 with Flow('iterated map') as flow: mapped_result = add_ten.map([1, 2, 3]) mapped_result_2 = add_ten.map(mapped_result)
When this flow runs, the result of the
mapped_result_2 task will be
[21, 22, 23], which is the result of applying the mapped function twice.
No reduce required
Even though we observed that the result of
mapped_result was a list, Prefect won't apply a reduce step to gather that list unless the user requires it. In this example, we never needed the entire list (we only needed each of its elements), so no reduce took place. The two mapped tasks generated three completely-independent pipelines, each one containing two tasks.
In general, each layer of an iterated map has the same number of children: if you map over a list of N items, you produce N results. Sometimes, it's useful to produce a sequence of results for each mapped input. For example, you might map over a list of directories to load all the files in each directory, then want to map over each file. Prefect provides a
flatten annotation to make this possible. When the input to a map is marked as
flatten, the input is assumed to be a list-of-lists and is "un-nested" into a single list prior to applying the map.
flatten() is more efficient than adding a reduce step to an otherwise-iterated map, because Prefect will compute the flatmap without gathering all data to a single worker.
from prefect import Flow, task, flatten @task def A(): return [1, 2, 3] @task def B(x): return list(range(x)) @task def C(y): return y + 100 with Flow('flat map') as f: a = A() # [1, 2, 3] b = B.map(x=a) # [, [0, 1], [0, 1, 2]] c = C.map(y=flatten(b)) # [100, 100, 101, 100, 101, 102]
flatten() can be used on any task input, even if it isn't being mapped over.
Prefect automatically gathers mapped results into a list if they are needed by a non-mapped task. Therefore, all users need to do to "reduce" a mapped result is supply it to a task!
from prefect import Flow, task @task def add_ten(x): return x + 10 @task def sum_numbers(y): return sum(y) with Flow('reduce') as flow: mapped_result = add_ten.map([1, 2, 3]) mapped_result_2 = add_ten.map(mapped_result) reduced_result = sum_numbers(mapped_result_2)
In this example,
sum_numbers received an automatically-reduced list of results from
mapped_result. It appropriately computes the sum: 66.
# Filter map output
If the output of one mapped task is used as input to another mapped task, any failed or skipped task will make the subsequent task fail/skip by default. However sometimes, we want to exclude skipped/failed tasks' output or outputs that are
None. Prefect provides this functionality with
from prefect import task, Flow, context from prefect.tasks.control_flow.filter import FilterTask from prefect.engine.signals import SKIP filter_results = FilterTask( filter_func=lambda x: not isinstance(x, (BaseException, SKIP, type(None))) ) @task def unstable_task(arg): if arg == 1: raise RuntimeError("Fail this task execution") if arg == 2: raise SKIP("Skip this task execution") if arg == 3: return None return arg @task def add_one(arg): return arg + 1 @task def log_args(args): logger = context.get("logger") logger.info(args) with Flow('filter') as flow: raw_out = unstable_task.map([0, 1, 2, 3, 4]) # raw_out is [0, RuntimeError, SKIP, None, 4] at this point filtered = filter_results(raw_out) inc_out = add_one.map(filtered) log_args(inc_out) # [1, 5]
In the example above,
raw_out will contain
[0, RuntimeError, SKIP, None, 4]. Without filtering, the
RuntimeError would mark downstream tasks as
SKIP would cause downstream tasks to get the final state
None could make downstream tasks fail due to invalid input. Our
filter_results task will filter out everything that evaluates to
False according to the
filter_func. This way, the flow will log the array
[1, 5] at the end.
# Unmapped inputs
When a task is mapped over its inputs, it retains the same call signature and arguments, but iterates over the inputs to generate its children tasks. Sometimes, we don't want to iterate over one of the inputs -- perhaps it's a constant value, or a list that's required in its entirety. Prefect supplies a convenient
unmapped() annotation for this case.
from prefect import Flow, task, unmapped @task def add(x, y): return x + y with Flow('unmapped inputs') as flow: result = add.map(x=[1, 2, 3], y=unmapped(10))
This map will iterate over the
x inputs but not over the
y input. The result will be
[11, 12, 13].
unmapped annotation can be applied to any number of input arguments. This means that a mapped task can depend on both mapped and reduced upstream tasks seamlessly.
Prefect also provides a
mapped() annotation that can be used to indicate that an input should be mapped over when binding inputs without calling
# Complex mapped pipelines
Sometimes you want to encode a more complex structure in your mapped pipelines
- for example, adding conditional tasks using
prefect.case. This can be done using
prefect.apply_map. This takes a function that adds multiple scalar tasks to a flow, and converts those tasks to run as parallel mapped pipelines.
For example, here we create a function that encodes in Prefect tasks the following logic:
xis even, increment it
xis odd, negate it
inc_or_negate is not a task itself - it's a function that creates
several tasks. Just as we can map single tasks like
can map functions that create multiple tasks using
from prefect import Flow, task, case, apply_map from prefect.tasks.control_flow import merge @task def inc(x): return x + 1 @task def negate(x): return -x @task def is_even(x): return x % 2 == 0 def inc_or_negate(x): cond = is_even(x) # If x is even, increment it with case(cond, True): res1 = inc(x) # If x is odd, negate it with case(cond, False): res2 = negate(x) return merge(res1, res2) with Flow("apply-map example") as flow: result = apply_map(inc_or_negate, range(4))
Running the above flow we get four parallel, conditional mapped pipelines. The
computed value of
[1, -1, 3, -3].
Just as with
task.map, arguments to
apply_map can be wrapped with
unmapped, allowing certain arguments to avoid being mapped. While not always
apply_map can be quite useful when you want to create complex
mapped pipelines, especially when using conditional logic within them.
# State behavior with mapped tasks
Whenever a mapped task is reduced by a downstream task, Prefect treats its children as the inputs to that task. This means, among other things, that trigger functions will be applied to all of the mapped children, not the mapped parent.
If a reducing task has an
all_successful task, but one of the mapped children failed, then the reducing task's trigger will fail. This is the same behavior as if the mapped children had been created manually and passed to the reducing task. Similar behavior will take place for skips.